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How PYRAMIDS were Made in Ancient Egypt

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Construction on pyramids have remained a mystery and different researchers give totally different theories about their construction. We know that pyramids were made thousands years ago, and we can't imagine a scientifically advanced civilization at that time, that a make such a huge construction which is still considered as an Engineering Mystery. Some say that these were made by Aliens, some say that people of that time must have had anti-gravity technology to levitate the heavy pieces of stones. Both of these theories seems impossible for a scientific mind. To find out which theory suits best about construction of pyramids, we need to know how old they are and what was the purpose of their construction.

How old are Pyramids ?

Archaeologists believe that Egypt's Old Kingdom society which ruled the Nile Valley after 3000 B.C constructed the large pyramids. Researchers tried to find the age of these monuments through radio-carbon dating, which works on those objects which was once alive(such as seeds, wood, straw, and plants). Some people believe that it can't give us the exact date as Egypt has gone through floods in the mean while and pyramids were repaired for the damage, and the labor must have left some wood and other things, which might have contaminated the modern radiocarbon dating process.
Radiocarbon dating is often questioned as it can only estimate when a living thing died. It can only give an estimate when a plant or animal died and C-14 (a radioactive carbon isotope) started to decay. It can be successful in estimating the death year of mummies buried in the pyramids, but it can't tell the exact time of pyramid construction. It is possible that these magnificent structures were there much before and pharaohs used them as their burial ground.
Age of stones can be predicted by some scientific techniques, but it can't be estimated when that stone was cut and used in building a monument.

What was the purpose of their construction ?

According to historians, the primary motive of their construction was to be used as graves of kings and queens, which will remain intact for millenniums. But robbers looted these pyramids even in the ancient times to get the precious jewelry and gem stones from their graves. Due to this fact members of royal families were later not buried in these pyramids.

Why pyramid construction is so difficult ?

You will understand the level of difficulty if we provide you with an example. Lets talk about Great Pyramid of Khufu/Cheops. King Khufu ruled for 23 years. Even if we assume that he had ordered the manufacturing of his pyramid just after 3 years, then it took 20 years to build it, before he died.
  • It is made of 2.5 million blocks of limestone.
  • Around 100,000 slaves are used in this pyramid's construction.
  • Its total height is 146 meters, with 210 layers of stones / blocks.
  • Each of these blocks weighs above 2000 kg. 
  • At least 60 men are necessary to lift such a stone. But still it is unimaginable how they can lift it to so much heights.
  • Granite blocks used in King's Chamber weighed around 40 to 60 tons. Height of this chamber is around 40 meters. It is unimaginable to lift so heavy stones with just muscle power.
  • It is said that it took 20 years to build this pyramid. If the workers worked for 365 days per year, then it means that they lifted and placed more than 342 stones per day. Even if they worked for 10 hours per day, they will get just 2 minutes to place each stone on its desired location.
  • Apart from lifting, the accuracy in fitting them at correct place and cutting them with precision is most difficult to imagine.
  • It is said that limestone used in these pyramids are brought here from shores of Nile river which is not too far, but the Granite Stone was brought here from Aswan, which is 900km away.
  • According to some historians, wheels were not invented in Egypt by that time, which made transportation even tougher.
  • No soft metal saw can cut the limestone, so what did they use to cut these stones with so much accuracy. Today we can use diamond drills to do that, which were not there at that time. Diamonds were discovered in India around 400 BC, while pyramids were made between 2000 and 3000 BC.

How Pyramids were made ?

This thing is still not clear even after several researches. Different archaeologists and historians provide us with different theories.
Transportation of Stones: It is one of the biggest mysteries, as the limestone used in these pyramids was found to be brought from different locations. Some researchers predict that these heavy stones were brought there through water ways. These waterways were later filled with sand so that either it can't be undone or to make them a mystery. A new theory says that heavy stones were brought through sledges with water poured in front to wet the sand for ease in dragging them.
How these stones were lifted up : Some believers in ancient technology believe that they were levitated in air using some anti-gravity technology and put at the correct place. These stones were so heavy that even an elephant can't take them to such a height. It is still a tough task, if you try to lift such stone with modern cranes.
Aliens made them: It is one of the most controversial theories. But a scientific brain can't digest this theory. The theory that Aliens made these pyramids, is just because some of us don't think that human are capable enough to make them. However i don't so, evolution has not changed humans much in past 5000 years. Earlier people might also have some technology which was only available for elite class. You may read our article "There are no Aliens - How to prove that" to know more.
Pyramids are not made of stones: It is one of the most interesting theories that i have observed so far. A website named geopolymer.org published this fact that pyramids were actually not made with limestone. They were actually made with limestone cement, just like we use cement to make modern buildings. Limestone concrete was brought here with the help of slaves and then some other materials were mixed with it along with water to form a muddy mixture. The blocks of limestone that we see today in pyramids are actually large bricks of lime stone that were hardened at their present location, and the slaves just lifted the muddy mixture to that height of pyramids. As the time passed these blocks hardened more and looked more like carved stone. This theory seems understandable as no fragments of limestone are found near pyramids, which should have been there if these stones were really carved by cutting them.
Pyramids were made by some other ancient civilization, not by Pharaohs: Pyramids were there long before and those Egyptian kings just used them as their graves. One may say that if these kings were able to make their graves with such a good engineering, they why didn't the made their own mansions better than that. Some historians and archaeologists believe that humanity is vanished away after every 10 to 20 thousand years due to ice-age or any other natural calamity and all technological advancement till then are washed away. When we try to find age of these pyramids, we estimate the age of fossils of living things found inside those places, but the truth is that those living things might have come there after a long time of their construction.

How many Pyramids are there in World?
The name of Egypt comes to mind whenever someone talks about Pyramids. It is true that some of the largest pyramids ever discovered were found in Egypt, but Egypt was no the only place where pyramids were built. There are around 80 to 138 pyramids (as cited in different websites) in Egypt. But there are some some other countries as well where pyramids were found. There are around 240 pyramids in Sudan. Mesopotamia, Sudan, Nigeria, Greece and several other countries are home of pyramid like structures. Some of them are still in use as a religious place. Some structures which are similar to pyramids are also found in India, Indonesia and Peru.

Pyramids are ancient structures and nobody can be 100% sure about how they were constructed. We usually stick to an assumption and try to find facts to prove ourselves true. Due to this reason a new theory is evolved about the construction of Pyramids. You may also put some light on this topic in the comments section.

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